|Muscle or tendon strain (stretching or tearing)||Muscle is tissue composed of bundles of specialised cells that when stimulated by nerve impulses contract and produce movement. A tendon is a tough, fibrous cord of tissue that connects muscle to bone.||Acute injury often due to a forceful muscle contraction||Hamstring or quadriceps muscles||Sports that require quick forceful muscle contractions such as sprinting.|
|Ligament sprain (stretching or tearing)||A ligament is a band of fibrous tissue that connects 2 or more bones at a joint and prevents excessive movement of the joint.||Acute injury which occurs when a joint is forced into an unnatural position||Knee and Ankle||Sports that involve twisting of the knee or ankle or quickly stopping and then starting again such as soccer, basketball, hockey or rugby.|
|Spondylolysis (defect or fracture in the bony structures of the spine)||Overuse injury||Lower back||Sports that require repetitive extension and hyperextension of the lower back such as ballet, gymnastics, diving and bowling (cricket).|
|Avulsion fracture (break)||An avulsion fracture is when a piece of bone is fractured and pulled away from the rest of the bone at the site of the tendon or ligament attachment||Acute injury||Hip, foot and upper arm bones||Sports that require forceful kicking, running and jumping as well as sports that require throwing of implements such as javelin or discus.|
1. Brukner, P. and Khan, K. (2009). Clinical sports medicine (3rd ed.). Sydney: McGraw-Hill.
2. Peterson, L. and Renström, P. (2001). Sports injuries: Their prevention and treatment (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
3. Prentice, W.E. (2010). Essentials of athletic injury management (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.